`#include "MusimatTutorial.h"`

Go to the source code of this file.

## Functions | |

MusimatTutorialSection (B0204) | |

Real | dB (Real y) |

Static Void | para1 () |

MusimatTutorialSection | ( | B0204 | ) |

Definition at line 2 of file B0204.cpp.

References para1().

{ Print("*** B.2.4 Loudness ***"); /***************************************************************************** B.2.4 Loudness Loudness is expressed in common music notation using performance indications such as fortis- simo or piano (see section 2.7). But the performed intensity depends upon the acoustical power of the instrument and the interpretation of the performer. A better approach for the purpose here would be to define loudness in objective terms using decibels (see section 5.5.1). Since microphones and loudspeakers measure and reproduce pressure waves, it is common to use dB SPL in audio work (see equation 5.32). It is also conventional in audio to take the loudest value that can be reproduced without distortion as a reference intensity of 0 dB (see section 4.24.2). Since measured intensities will be less intense than the reference, then by the definition of the deci- bel they will be expressed as negative decibel levels. We can write, for example, -6 dB to indicate an amplitude that is (very close to) one half of the amplitude of the 0 dB reference. Restating (5.32), the equation for dB SPL, using standard mathematics symbols, is y dB = 20 Log10(A'/A) and simplifying by letting x=A'/A, we have y dB = 20 Log10(x). Solving for x, we have x = 10^(y/20). (B.1) (Note, in standard math, A' in English means "A prime", which means A' is like A, but is not necessarily the same. Also, the operator "^" in standard math means exponentiation, so that 2^2=4. In modern programming languages, however, "^" means "exclusive-or".) For example, setting y = -6 dB, we have x = 10^(-6/20) = 0.501. The value of x is the coefficient by which a signal must be multiplied to lower its amplitude by 6 dB. For another example, setting y = 0 dB, we have x = 10^(0/20) = 1. So multplying by 0 dB does not affect amplitude. Setting y = -120 dB, we have x = 10^(-120/20) = 0.000001, so multiplying a signal by -120 dB renders it vir- tually inaudible. Finally, if we wish to amplify a soft sound, scaling it by +6 dB makes it twice as loud. Thus, scaling sounds with decibel coefficients allows us to achieve arbitrary loudness levels for waveforms. So we define *****************************************************************************/ para1(); // Step into this function to continue the tutorial }

Static Void para1 | ( | ) |

Definition at line 48 of file B0204.cpp.

References dB().

{ /***************************************************************************** For example, Print(dB(-6)) prints 0.501187, Print(dB(0)) prints 1.0, and Print(dB(-120)) prints 0.000001. Suppose we have the following audio samples for a sound: *****************************************************************************/ RealList mySound(0, 0.16, 0.192, -0.37, -0.45, -0.245, -0.43, 0.09); /***************************************************************************** We wish to halve the sound's amplitude. Then *****************************************************************************/ RealList scaledSound = mySound * dB(-6); Print(scaledSound); /***************************************************************************** prints {0.02, 0.08, 0.10, -0.19, -0.23, -0.12, -0.22, 0.05, . . .}. See volume 2, chapter 1, for more about sampled signals. Musimat provides built-in definitions for standard music dynamics levels based on figure 4.7. *****************************************************************************/ Real ffff = dB(0), fff = dB(-10), ff = dB(-18), f = dB(-24), mf = dB(-32), mp = dB(-40), p = dB(-48), pp = dB(-56), ppp = dB(-64); Print( ffff ); Print( fff ); Print(ff); Print(f); Print(mf); Print(mp); Print(mp); Print(p); Print(pp); Print(ppp); /***************************************************************************** Thus ffff does not change the amplitude of the signal, but all others attenuate it to varying degrees. *****************************************************************************/ }

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